Saturday, April 26, 2014

Children born out of Live-in Relationship are legitimate-Supreme Court of India

Children born out of Live-in Relationship are legitimate-Supreme Court of India 

Moot Points :
  • Live- in relationship is considered not illegal in India  ,but considered socially and morally improper by the society.But child born out of marriage are regarded as illegitimate by the traditional society.
  • Present Scenario after Court verdicts: lt is to be noted that several judicial pronouncements of Supreme Court as well as  High Courts held that child born out of live -in relationship are legitimate and entitle for all legal rights like child born out of legal marriage ,it is pertinent to say that Court verdicts are changing the mindset of people towards the concept of live -in relationship.
  •  Legal marriage and Live in relationship : only difference is that they have not registered their marriage at Sub-registrar office or got married in traditional and customary ceremonies.
  • The Presumption of Marriage:  Hon'ble Supreme Court in Madan Mohan Singh & Ors v. Rajni Kant & Anr. AIR 2010 SC 2933 ,discussed the legality of the Live-in Relationship as well as legitimacy of Child born out of such relationship.The Court while dismissing the appeal in the property dispute held that there is a presumption of marriage between those who are in live-in relationship for a long time and this cannot be termed as 'walking-in and walking-out' relationship.
  •  Inheritance Rights in Parent's s Property: In Bharata Matha & Ors v. R. Vijaya Renganathan & Ors.AIR 2010 SC 2685,  dealing with the legitimacy of child born out of a live-in relationship and his succession of property rights,Hon'ble  Supreme Court held that child born out of a live-in relationship may be allowed to succeed inheritance in the property of the parents, if any, but doesn't have any claim as against Hindu ancestral coparcenary property.
Full Text of Judgement :

(Crl M.P. No.6817 of 2014)

Uday Gupta……………. Petitioner

... Versus
Aysha & Anr. ………....Respondents

O R D E R 

Permission to file special leave petition is granted. This petition has been filed by an Advocate of this Court though not a party before the Madras High Court wherein the judgment impugned dated 17.6.2013 had been passed in Criminal R.C. No.674 of 2007 making certain observation regarding the relationship between man and woman and particularly the institution of marriage.
Mr. M.R. Calla, learned senior counsel appearing for the petitioner has submitted that the observations made by the High Court  that “a valid marriage does not necessarily mean that all the customary rights pertaining to the married couple are to be followed  and subsequently solemnized” are not legally tenable. It has been pointed out by Mr. Calla, learned senior counsel that such observations demolish the very institution of marriage itself, and therefore, are liable to be set aside.

In view of the nature of the order we propose to pass, we do not consider it necessary to issue notice to anyone. We have gone through the judgment and order impugned and perused the record of the case. 

We are of the view that such observations had been made in the facts of that case. In fact, what the learned Judge wanted to say is that if a man and woman are living together for a long time as husband and wife, though never married, there would be a presumption of marriage and their children could not be called to be illegitimate. Such a view stands fully fortified by a very large number of judgments.
This Court in  Madan Mohan Singh & Ors. v. Rajni Kant & Anr. , AIR 2010 SC 2933 held as under:- “The courts have consistently held that the law presumes in favour of marriage and against concubinage, when a man and woman have cohabited continuously for a number of years. However, such presumption can be rebutted by leading unimpeachable evidence. (Vide: Mohabbat Ali Khan v. Mohd. Ibrahim Khan, AIR 1929 PC 135; Gokalchand v. Parvin Kumar, AIR 1952 SC 231; S.P.S. Balasubramanyam v. Suruttayan, (1994) 1 SCC 460; Ranganath Parmeshwar Panditrao Mali v. Eknath Gajanan Kulkarni, (1996) 7 SCC 681; and Sobha Hymavathi Devi v. Setti Gangadhara Swamy & Ors.,
(2005) 2 SCC 244).”
In  Bharatha Matha & Anr. v. R. Vijaya Ranganathan & Ors, AIR 2010 SC 2685, this Court dealt with the legitimacy of the children born out of such relationship observing: “Thus, it is evident that Section 16 of the (Hindu Marriage) Act intends to bring about social reforms, conferment of social status of legitimacy on a group of children, otherwise treated as illegitimate, as its prime object.”

In the instant case, the High Court made the aforesaid observations in the facts of that case as the alleged marriage took place in 1994 and two children were born in 1996 and 1999 respectively. Therefore, the observations made by the High Court in the said judgment are restricted to the facts of that case and do not lay down the law of universal application.

In view of the above, we do not deem it necessary to consider the case any further. with these observations, the special leave petition stands
disposed of. 



New Delhi,April 21, 2014
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